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Here cc stands for cubic centimetres. It is the unit of volume and in a vehicle it is the measure of swept volume of its engine. Every engine has clearance volume and swept volume . Clearance volume is provided for various purposes such as opening and closing of valves etc. But swept volume is the total volume takes by piston in its movement from BDC(bottom dead centre ) to TDC(top dead centre). For instance, Nissan's Teana 350JM is a car with a 3,498 cubic centimetres (213.5 cu in) displacement engine. Motorcycles are often labeled similarly. However, this can be misleading. For instance, the BMW 335i only has a 3.0-litre (twin-turbocharged) engine, the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 has an 8.0-litre (quad-turbocharged W16) engine, and the Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 has a 5.2-litre engine (with a maximum power output of 560 PS). Lexus hybrid vehicles (h) are marked higher than true engine size to signify the extra power from auxiliary systems. (Examples: RX450h has a 3.5 L engine, LS600h has a 5.0 L engine.)
Hi there, CC stands for CubicCentimetre which is an unit of volume. In general,‘,CC,’ is the total amount of volume available for combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber or cylinder in an IC(Internal combustion) Engine to get the power stroke which inturn gives the torque to rotate the crankshaft by slider crank mechanism. To be specific,Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (l), or cubic inches (CID). In the automotive industry, engine displacement is frequently encoded in the auto manufacturer's model names. For instance, Nissan's Teana 350JM is a car with a 3,498 cubic centimetres (213.5 cu in) displacement engine. Motorcycles are often labeled similarly. However, this can be misleading. For instance, the BMW 335i only has a 3.0-litre (twin-turbocharged) engine, the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 has an 8.0-litre (quad-turbocharged W16) engine, and the Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 has a 5.2-litre engine (with a maximum power output of 560 PS). Lexus hybrid vehicles (h) are marked higher than true engine size to signify the extra power from auxiliary systems. Examples: RX450h has a 3.5 L engine, LS600h has a 5.0 L engine.
The maximum rpm limit of a piston engine is mainly determined by two factors: piston speed and acceleration valves acceleration If the engine runs too fast, valve springs can’t return the valves to their seat with the cam follower still in contact with the cam. This phenomenon, called “valve float”, can launch the valve too high, up to the point where it’s still widely open when the piston arrives at the top dead center (TDC). Then a collision occurs which can bend and even break the valve. A broken valve head is thus set free in the combustion chamber where it will perforate the hot aluminum piston head and wreck the cylinder head, ending the engine‘s life. If the valve springs are strong enough to still keep the cam followers in contact with the cam and return the valves to their seat in time, the violent piston deceleration and acceleration near TDC may break a piston ring: a broken part will get loose in its groove, break the top piston land to finally also end in the combustion chamber where it’ll wreak havoc. The art of the designer of a racing engine has always been to match maximum piston speed and acceleration with maximum valve acceleration by choosing the optimum stroke/bore ratio (S/B) for the valve springs available at the time. Piston acceleration depends mostly on the mean piston speed (MPS), which, if the stroke (S) is in mm and crankshaft angular velocity (V) in rpm, is S x V / 30,000. The ratio of rod length / stroke (L/S) also has some influence: for a given stroke, the rod angularity is reduced if that rod is longer, which lessens piston max acceleration. (If the rod length could be infinite, the piston acceleration around TDC and BDC would be equal instead of being higher around TDC). On the other hand, there are also tribological reasons which limit the maximum piston speed below 45 m/s. This speed is equal to the MPS multiplied by 1.66 to 1.62 with usual rod lenght-to-stroke (L/S) ratios between 1.5 and 1.85 respectively. That 45 m/s limit is valid whatever the stroke is, while shorter stroke engines can withstand much more violent piston acceleration than long stroke ones. Obviously, the ability of an object to withstand violent acceleration depends on its mass. An elephant can’t accelerate like a fly! Launched at cruising speed, a supertanker carrying 2 million barrels of crude oil requires between 14 and 20 minutes to stop, during which it travels about twenty km. A larger bore goes along with bigger and heavier valves; therefore if the S/B is too low (large bore with short stroke), the absolute maximum engine rpm will be limited by valve float. On the contrary, if the S/B is too high (long stroke and small bore), the max rpm is dictated by the maximum piston speed. Doubling the number of valves to 4 per cylinder allowed smaller and lighter valves while greatly and constantly improved springs permitted greater valve acceleration and increasingly higher rpm, along with lower and lower S/B. Renault EF1, 1977-79. 86 x 42,8 mm, 1492 cm³, 510 hp at 11000 tr/min, 373 Nm (38 mkg) at 8000 rpm, ϵ 7 :1, one Garrett turbocharger The initial Renault F1 V6 had an extremely large bore of 86 mm and short stroke of 42.8 mm (S/B ratio of 0,5), and thus its revs were not limited by its MPS and piston acceleration, but by its valvetrain. In 1986, Renault introduced the pneumatic valve return system, replacing the valve springs by nitrogen compressed at 200 bars. From then on, the revs of the F1 engines could climb above 12,000 rpm while their S/B ratio was progressively reduced to 0.41 in 2006 V8s with 98 mm bore and 39.75 mm stroke. These were the engines reaching up to 20,000 rpm at a MPS of 26.5 m/s. Valvetrain of the 2006 Honda RA 806E About 20 m/s was a long time considered as a maximum MPS for a sufficient engine reliability and lifespan. Longer titanium rods (L/S ratio of > 2.5 instead of 1.45 - 1.8,5, in production engines), improved materials, better piston and rings technologies, specific oils plus extreme precision and quality control in manufacturing allowed to break this limit. Some production engines even have their max power at around 25 m/s of MPS but their longer stroke limits their rpm. S/B ratios of less than 0.75 would be totally impractical nowadays in a road car for several reasons, particularly an excessive combustion chamber’s walls surface, bad thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust emissions. In order to limit costs, the current F1 regulations even specify the bore and stroke of the turbocompound V6s: it is mandated to be 80 x 53 mm (S/B ratio of 0.66). The maximum rpm allowed by the rules is 15,000 rpm but max power is around 12,000 rpm only, due to other rules limiting fuel consumption. EDIT : Thanks everyone for all the upvotes! It inspires me to write some more info. Ferrari tipo 049, 2000. 90° V10, 96 x 41.4 mm, 2997 cm³, 800 hp at 17,500 rpm, 343 Nm at 15,500 rpm Concerning materials, they have been strictly limited by the FIA rules, specially from 2006 on. From 1998 up to their ban by the FIA in 2001, in Mercedes F1 engines Ilmor used ,Aluminium-beryllium ,alloy pistons, reducing their weight by at least a third and gaining enhanced thermal conductivity. The cost of this alloy and the fact that beryllium dust particles are a health hazard has led to their ban. Then, MMC (Metal Matrix Composite) pistons were used in 2004 and 2005 — until they were also banned from 2006 on. MMC had improved their resistance to high temperature while lowering their weight from 255 to 210 g in a Honda V10 of 97 mm bore. ,Development of Metal Matrix Composite Piston The return to aluminum alloy pistons in 2006 caused cracking problems. It was initially solved at Honda by retarding the ignition point of 6.5° (at the cost of 7 kW). Finally, pistons cooling was improved with one of the two multi-holes cooling oil jets par cylinder extended to almost touch the inside of the piston crown at bottom dead center (BDC). This, with a total of at least 12 holes per pair of jets, provided a spray arc covering the whole inner surface of the piston head, including the part hidden by the rod small end. Recent F1 pistons have only 2 very thin rings pressed against the cylinder wall by an inner expander spring. In 2006, the steel rings have been substituted by titanium rings with tungsten carbide coating and diamond like coating (DLC) on the expander. The low thermal conductivity of titanium is not a problem since FI pistons are cooled by powerful oil jets. DLC is also applied on the cams, cam followers, piston skirts and sometimes on the rods’ small end sides, used instead of the sides of the crank pin to limit the rods lateral travel. This reduces friction losses. The rods are in titanium alloy, as well as the hollow and sodium-potassium filled valves. The aluminum-titanium alloy previously used for the valves has been banned in 2006. Rod and main bearings are in an expensive bronze-silicon alloy with nickel added (Corson). It provides the durability needed under a doubled contact pressure, even with a low viscosity oil. This expensive alloy is more resistant than steel while having thermal conductivity and slip properties close to those of copper. Furthermore, its modulus of elasticity is less than that of the conventional bearings and it crushes more under an equivalent pressure, which enables it to better conform to the deformation of the con rod and also represents an advantage in heat dissipation. A key feature is oiling from the crankshaft nose by its center line, instead of flowing from the periphery of the main bearings. Therefore, the oil pressure is helped by the centrifugal force instead of working against it. The crankshaft is machined inside in order to lighten it; to limit its diameter, it has tungsten counterweights. The combustion in the flat chambers created by the extremely low stroke/bore ratio is helped by valves not only on a transverse included angle, but also slightly inclined longitudinally. Main sources:, ,Honda R&D Technical Review F1 Special (The third Era Activities), ,Dans les entrailles des moteurs de Formule 1 de 1965 à 1988, ,Dans les entrailles des moteurs de Formule 1 de 1989 à 2013 , ,10 Years of BMW F1 Engines